Slag products are used in a number of environmental applications, including neutralizing acid mine discharge and the removal of pollutants such as phosphorous from waterways.

Phoenix Services is dedicated to helping metals producers minimize the impact their production processes have on the environment. For example, we employ state-of-the–art processing plants to reduce any environmental impact while providing for the maximum recovery of metal produced to your specification. Phoenix Services also endeavors to provide ways to reduce, re-use, recycle or market all by-products generated by your processes.

We custom design each operation to assure for maximum efficiency with minimum environmental impact. Prior to start-up, an in-depth study determines the best operating design and plan for our customer, whether they operate as an integrated, specialty or mini-mill producer. Environment, safety, operational and engineering best practice are all coordinated at each operating site for overall efficiency and to assure we work with you as a good business partner.

Operations are only part of the environmental story. Slag sales also impact the environment in unique ways. With Phoenix Service’s skilled staff in slag sales, steel slag is sold to many applications that enhance the local plant and animal environment. Steel Slag can be used to remediate waste water by removing pollutants such as phosphorus from water through a filtering process. Steel slag will also remediate acid mine discharge simply by causing heavy metals to drop from solution in local streams where water seeps from abandoned mines. Phoenix has patented a unique use of BOF steel slag blended with harbor dredge material to make embankment fill for DOT and commercial applications. It is Phoenix Services talented sales force that can identify these unique opportunities for slag sales thereby ensuring slag is sold and does not accumulate on the steel mill property.

Phoenix Services assures customer specifications are met through on-site Quality Assurance Testing.

Journal of Environmental Quality

Trapping Phosphorus in Runoff with a Phosphorus Removal Structure
Chad J. Penn,* Joshua M. McGrath, Elliott Rounds, Garey Fox, and Derek Heeren

Reduction of phosphorus (P) inputs to surface waters may decrease eutrophication. Some researchers have proposed filtering dissolved P in runoff with P-sorptive byproducts in structures placed in hydrologically active areas with high soil P concentrations. The objectives of this study were to construct and monitor a P removal structure in a suburban watershed and test the ability of empirically developed flow-through equations to predict structure performance. Steel slag was used as the P sorption material in the P removal structure. Water samples were collected before and after the structure using automatic samples and analyzed for total dissolved P. During the first 5 mo of structure operation, 25% of all dissolved P was removed from rainfall and irrigation events. Phosphorus was removed more efficiently during low flow rate irrigation events with a high retention time than during high flow rate rainfall events with a low retention time.

The six largest flow events occurred during storm flow and accounted for 75% of the P entering the structure and 54% of the P removed by the structure. Flow-through equations developed for predicting structure performance produced reasonable estimates of structure “lifetime” (16.8 mo). However, the equations overpredicted cumulative P removal. This was likely due to differences in pH, total Ca and Fe, and alkalinity between the slag used in the structure and the slag used for model development. This suggests the need for an overall model that can predict structure performance based on individual material properties.

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